# Devices and Appliances
The following chapters describe ideas for actual implementation of devices or the nanogrid controller.
# Grid controller power stage
The following image shows the implementation of the DC/DC power stage that could be integrated in a device connected directly to the grid.
Grid switching and current measurement should be implemented on the high-side in order to provide a consistent ground path.
# Node types
# Solar Home System (SHS)
- Retrofit to existing SHS
- Dedicated grid-connected household
- Without battery / PoL converter
- With small battery as buffer (easier control)
Ideally 12 V or 24 V batteries to remain below the grid voltage and allow use of simple synchronous buck converters.
PV modules can be connected directly to the grid or to a battery acting as a buffer.